Al-Waalid (The Father), The Noble Shaykh Hasan Abdul-Wahhaab Marzouq Al-Bannaa – hafidhahullahu ta’aalaa – says in his book “As-Siyaamu Junnah (Fasting Is A Safeguard/Protection)”.
Ibn Umar – ridhwaan Allahi alayhi – said: Allah’s Messenger – salallahu alayhi wa sallam – obligated Zakaatul-Fitr (Charity to the poor after the completion of the fast of Ramadhaan) as a Saa’an (Note: A measure which equals 4 mudds or 3 to 4 kilograms (approx.)) from Tamr (Dates), or Saa’an from Sha’eer (Barley), upon Al-Abd (The Slave), Al-Hurr (The Free Person), Adh-Dhakar (The Male) and Al-Unthaa (The Female); as well as As-Sagheer (The Small i.e. Child), and Al-Kabeer (The Big i.e. Elderly) from Al-Muslimoon (The Muslims). He – salallahu alayhi wa sallam – ordered that it be dispersed before An-Naas (The People) leave for As-Salaah (go to Salaatul-Eid).
Al-Allaamah Al-Uthaymeen (rahimahullahu ta’aalaa) said, and the statement of Ibn Umar (radhiyyallahu anhumaa), ((Allah’s Messenger obligated - salallahu alayhi wa sallam – )) proves that indeed it is an Fardh Ayn (an obligation upon all of the Muslims (male and female, young and old). (Al-Jaami’ Li Ahkaam, Fiqhus-Sunnah – by the Esteemed Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih Al-Uthaymeen (rahimahullahu ta’aalaa).
Shaykh Uthaymeen contiues by saying, and the foundation in regards to it being Fardhul-Ayn: That it is upon the Mukallaf (the one who must adhere to this obligation) himself, which is who this obligation has be placed upon. Therefore, the person is obligated to disperse Zakaatul-Fitr for himself. The son is obligated to disperse Zakaatul-Fitr for himself. Just as every Mukallaf is obligated to disperse Zakaatul-Fitr for himself because he has been addressed with it.
However if the Rabbul-Usraah (head of the household) disperses Zakaatul-Fitr upon the scene on behalf of his family and his children, and if they agree that he will be the one to disperse for the Zakaah, then there is no sin in this.
Added in other narrations from Aboo Sa’eed Al-Khudree – ridhwaan Allahi alayhi -: Saa’an from Ta’aam (Food) or Saa’an from Aqit (Cottage Cheese) or Saa’an from Zabeeb (Raisons) or Saa’an from Daqeeq (Flour) or Saa’an from Sult (Rye). (Note: This narration is not sound, but the meaning and the ruling are correct). Allah knows best.
In Al-Bukhaaree – rahmatullahi alayhi waasi’an -: Ibn Umar used to give it to those who accepted it, and they would give it out a day or 2 days before Al-Fitr and As-Sunnah is that you give out (Zakaatul-Fitr) as Ta’aam (Food). (Note: Partitioning off what comes from Al-Ardh (The Earth) (by the command of Allah) of Qoot Ahlul-Balad (the regular food which is eaten by the people of that country) like Oorz (Rice) or similar to it).
In Al-Mulakhusul-Fiqhiyyu by The Noble Shaykh Saalih Fawzaan Al-Fawzaan – hafidhahullahu ta’aalaa .
Chapter: Regarding Zakaatul-Fitr.
Ash-Shaykh says: As for giving out Al-Qeemah (the worth/value) of Zakaatul-Fitr, in that he pays substituting it (Zakaatul-Fitr) with money/cash. For this opposses As-Sunnah. Thus there is no dividing or allocating (Zakaatul-Fitr). Because it was not transmitted from An-Nabeey – salallahu alayhi wa sallam – and not from anyone from his Companions – ridhwaan Allahi alayhim – (that) gave out Al-Qeemah (the worth/value) in regards of Zakaatul-Fitr.
Imaam Ahmad – rahmatullahi alayhi waasi’an – said: Do not give out Al-Qeemah. It was said to him: Qaum (a group of people) say: Umar Ibn Abdil-Azeez used to take Al-Qeemah. He (Imaam Ahmad) said: they are challenging the statement of Allah’s Messenger – salallahu alayhi was sallam – and they said: So and So said. (Imaam Ahmad said): Ibn Umar has already said: Allah’s Messenger – salallahu alayhi wa sallam – obligated that Zakaatul-Fitr be Saa’an (4 mudds which is equal to 3 to 4 kilograms and Allah knows best)… Al-Hadeeth?!
Translated by: Aboo Abdir-Rahmaan Abdur-Raqeeb